A staggering 178 million children under the age of five are chronically malnourished, with malnutrition responsible for the deaths of more than three million children. Rising food and fuel prices threaten to make the situation even worse. The consequences of malnutrition are devastating for children themselves and for the wider economy, and are a direct result of families not being able to afford the right foods to feed their children. Save the Children’s new research shows just how unaffordable a healthy diet is. Cash transfers, as part of a social protection plan, offer a new opportunity to tackle malnutrition. This is an opportunity which deserves urgent attention by governments across the world.